However, what we now know as a computer is not eternally what the computer was. Over the years, there has been a significant improvement.

## THERE HAVE BEEN MANY ADVANCES ON THREE FRONTS:

- Speed
- Memory
- Size.

Although a computer is any system that collects, stores and processes data to provide information, the dynamics of which have been shaped in different ways over the years.

## FIRST COMPUTER

The **first computers **were massive because of the storage medium; they were contained in large spaces;

- Limited memory and processed only limited data.
- It was the age of the vacuum tube, which then served as a switching unit and computer memory, controlling speed and memory.
- They were significant and had limited capacity.

## DEVELOPMENT OF TRANSISTORS

The** development of transistors** led to a **revolution in information technology**. Electronics were smaller, but with more memory and higher speed. But even more, there was an Integrated System that consisted of hundreds of millions of transistors.

Along with the integrated circuit, the age of **microprocessors**, **microcomputers**, and **supercomputers** has come. Now, calculations allow us to meet many computing needs with more memory, and at the same time a minimal size and very fast processing or processing speed.

**This development has made possible various technological advances.**

## CHALLENGES PERSIST IN IT SECTOR

However, even with these changes in the IT, there were also challenges. These challenges relate to space, speed, energy consumption and complex, difficult to solve problems. About space above all.

Transistors are a switching unit and computer memory, as well as specify storage and processing capabilities.

This means that for a computational system to deal with more complex problems, there is a need for more transistors, and these transistors must be smaller, to ensure a balance between space (too many, too large transistors may endanger the essence of microprocessors) and processing capacity (need more and more to increase processing efficiency).

The problem in this respect is that the transistors are approaching the place where they become as small as the atom, the smallest physical component. How smaller can they achieve the balance between space, memory, processing speed and capacity?

Secondly, our computers are arranged following binary 0 and 1. The storage of information depends on transistors that operate on one or any method (or 0 when one or 1 when they are off).

The more information you need to store, the more transistors and zeros and ones. Many computer systems require many subsequent steps that go from binary digits to logic gates, registers, electronic circuits, and algorithm. In this way, very complex problems will need a lot of time to process them.

The sequential nature of these processes also means that computer systems consume a lot of energy while performing different methods.

That’s why many computers get hot when used.

Every binary operation uses the absolute minimum amount of energy

Nevertheless, many problems remain unresolved by modern computers.

There are still many complex problems that remain unsolvable.

## QUANTUM COMPUTING IS NOT ONLY ADVANCED COMPUTERS LIKE SUPERCOMPUTERS AND MAINFRAMES.

This is a calculation based on an exceptionally different philosophy.

**The quantum world** is the world of atoms and subatomic particles in which the traditional laws of physics collapse. The quantum world, unlike modern computers, is not the world of one or both worlds.

This means that quantum bits, in contrast to standard bits, work in such a way that while a bit can store either zero or 1, it can write 0, 1, an infinite number of values between, 0 and 1 – and be in many states (store many values) at the same time, comparable to light that can be both a particle and a wave.

Quantum bits use a superposition to simultaneously represent multiple states.

In the same way, a quantum computer can process these values simultaneously, rather than the sequential nature of modern computers. Only when you try to find out what state it is at the moment (by measuring it in other words), it “collapses” into one of the possible states – and that gives you an answer to your problem.

## QUANTUM COMPUTER: FUTURE OF COMPUTING

Quantum computers are therefore faster, ensuring that complex problems are processed at the same time, maximizing efficiency, more energy efficient, because the processing time is reduced, while providing that smaller transistors can be placed in the quantum world, allowing problems earlier unsolvable can now be solved.

One example of this is illustrated by** Chris Woodford**:

“In 1994, working at Bell Laboratories, mathematician Peter Shor demonstrated an algorithm that a **quantum computer** could use to find the” prime factors “of a large number, which would speed up the problem immensely. aroused interest in Quantum Computing, because of the** modern computer.**

“If

quantum computerscould really count large numbers quickly, today’s online security can become obsolete in one fell swoop.”

## CONCLUSION:

Although there are perspectives, there are also challenges. They contain; the complexity of projects that are necessary for quantum computers to become a universal reality; the difficulty of having them on an industrial scale for use and the benefit of all; evidence that quantum bits require a lot of interaction among themselves; whether promotion in modern computers will make it necessary.

As more and more research is involved in this field, and opportunities and problems interact with each other, you need to find out if **Quantum Computing** will be another massive revolution in the world of computers and technology.